The NSA and Mitre Corporation have introduced the Mitre D3FEND framework – a matrix of defensive techniques that map to Mitre ATT&CK. ATT&CK is, of course, the well-known registry of offensive tactics, tools, and procedures. Along with offensive techniques, Mitre ATT&CK contains references to corresponding mitigation steps. Putting these defensive techniques all into a separate D3FEND framework will help blue teamers a lot.
The final stage of any pentesting project is providing recommendations on remediation. This is indeed the most crucial phase in every security assessment. Unless the pentest produces a report with clear guidance on improving the cybersecurity of an organization, system, or application – it is virtually useless.
We at BSG do not invent remediation steps for our recommendations, as it is more of the security engineers’ job. We, the hackers, are here to find, investigate, diagnose the problem, and advise our clients on how to fix it. When it comes to application security, giving advice is pretty simple. The problem is apparent in the software code or application configuration. Unlike appsec, infrastructure or organizational pentest recommendations can become vaguer, as the corresponding problems can be solved on various levels.
In search of material for our network and social engineering pentest reports, we often find ourselves on Mitre Corporation websites. Mitre CVE database hosts a lot of reference materials about security vulnerabilities. Mitre CWE catalog helps to classify virtually any cybersecurity threat. And the Mitre ATT&CK framework allows arranging the attack narratives in orderly cyber kill chain diagrams.
All these Mitre security projects aim at giving the defenders a clear and broad picture of what they can expect from different types of attackers. The ATT&CK framework, though, arranges data in a way that is attacker-centric, efficient for data breach responders and threat analysts but is less convenient for security engineers and managers. Simply because in the ATT&CK framework, remediation steps are preceded by lots of information about the attackers’ modus operandi and typical indicators of compromise.
The D3FEND framework solves that by putting the defensive techniques – risk controls, vulnerability remediations, and cybersecurity procedures – in the foreground and mapping them to the corresponding ATT&CK techniques. In other words, Mitre Corporation has created the mirror image of their successful product by changing the perspective. Now blue team members must not mine the ATT&CK framework for relevant defensive techniques as they now have them arranged in a neat and ordered way.
We recommend every blue team and CISO adopt the D3FEND framework into their arsenal of cybersecurity tools. And we hope to see more of our clients treating our infrastructure security assessments using this new practical approach to enterprise cyber defense.